Expeditions And Indian Cession Treaties—Pike's Expedition—The Indians Of Iowa—Their Principal Villages And Battles—The Black Hawk Purchase—Keokuk's Reserve—First Individual Grant—A List Of All Indian Treaties Affecting Iowa Soil—The Spanish Grant To Dubuque—The Claim Of Choteau—The Girard Tract And The Honori Tract—The Half—Breed Lands—Controversies Over The Rival Claims.
SOON after the acquisition of Louisiana,the United States Government adopted measures for the exploration of the new territory, having in view the conciliation of the numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was possessed, and, also, the selection of proper sites for the establishment of military posts and trading stations. The Army of the West, Gen. James Wilkinson, commanding, had its headquarters in St. Louis. From this post, Capts. Lewis and Clark, with a sufficient force, were detailed to explore the unknown sources of the Missouri, and Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike to ascend to the head-waters of the Mississippi. Lieut. Pike, with one sergeant, two corporals and seventeen privates, left the military camp, near St. Louis, in a keel-boat, with four months' rations, on August 9, 1805. On the 20th of the same month the expedition arrived within the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, where Pike met William Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian agent at this point, a French interpreter and four chiefs and fifteen Sac and Fox warriors.
At the head of the rapids, where Montrose is now situated, Pike held a council with the Indians, in which he addressed them substantially as follows: " Your great Father, the President of the United States, wished to be more intimately acquainted with the situation and wants of the different nations of red people in our newly acquired Territory of Louisiana, and has ordered the general to send a number of his warriors in different directions to take them by the hand and make such inquiries as might afford the satisfaction required." At the close of the council he presented the red men with some knives, whisky and tobacco.
Pursuing his way up the river, he arrived